Individual Preparation for Y2K Related Failures - The Cassandra Project

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By Paloma O'Riley, The Cassandra Project

The following preparation information is based on worst-case scenario. Our belief and purpose is it is always best to prepare for the worst, and hope for the best. See disclaimer below.

"Individual preparedness is for those who can;
community preparedness is for those who can't."


  1. Communication
  1. Financial
  1. Food and Other Basic Supplies
      1. What to do when
      2. What you need
      3. Ways to supplement long-term supplies
      4. Storage
      1. Supplies
      2. Sanitation
      3. Pets
  1. Health
  1. Power
  1. Safety
  1. Transportation
  1. Water
  1. Sanitation and Refuse
  2. Misc.

I. Communication

A. Phone

Communication is extremely important, often invaluable --especially in emergencies. If there are phone communication failures, you could be cut-off from emergency medical, police, and fire services. Therefore, prepare as if you will have no communicati on. See Emergency Medical and Dental Care for specific details.

One way of maintaining some form of contact within your family or the outside world is - a CB Radio and/or a Family Channel walkie-talkie. Of course, you must make sure than none of these will be affected by the Y2K problem. As a backup, you can always use children's walkie-talkies, as they're the most likely to work. However, they are only toys. Don't count on them for any significant use. (And make sure you have adequate batteries! See Radio for more details.)

B. Pager

If phones aren't working, it likely pagers aren't either. We couldn't come up with anything that can be used as a substitute (flares, maybe? Pacifiers?).

C. Television

In the event of general and backup power systems failure, plan for life with no television for a couple of days. If you have young children, this may effect you more than those who don't. Prepare by having plenty of games available, and be willing to p lay. It may also be a good time to read to them, teach a new craft, etc. Whatever, expect to have to be the sole source of entertainment for yourself and your family.

D. Radio

During any sort of an emergency, information becomes extremely important. Radio is more likely to be available. Make sure you have a portable battery operated AM/FM radio with good reception, and enough battery power to last at least a week of continuo us play. How many batteries you'll need will depend on the type of radio you have. Check with the manufacturer or test it yourself. By inserting fresh batteries and leaving it on, you can time how long the radio will operate and purchase batteries accordi ngly.

If any member of your family will be separated from the rest for more than a couple hours, it a good idea for them to have a radio also, and carry it with them.

E. Other

Entertainment systems, walkmans, VCR's, etc., may or may not be affected - unless the power goes out and they don't run on batteries. Don't rely on these to entertain you. Nothing like having a few simple (non-electronic) instruments around for fun.


II. Financial

A. Automatic Deposits

The best defense is a good offense. Don't count on your paycheck, social security, child support, etc., payments to be there. If you live from paycheck to paycheck like many people, you'll be severely hit if the money doesn't post to your accoun t as scheduled.

As difficult as it is, set enough cash aside to support you and your family for 6 - 8 weeks. That cash for food, etc. That cash - checks may or may not be accepted, nor may credit nor debit cards. For more info about cash or barter see Cash.

B. Automatic Payments

Don't count on your bills, mortgage, etc., being paid for you. Pay them at least 3-4 months in advance, for a 2 month period, extending into February of 2000. It extremely important that you get hardcopy receipts for your records. The burden of proof - -as always-- will be on you.

If there are penalties associated with pre or advance payments, discuss this with your creditor. Ask if they will waive penalty fees even if only for a few months. If they won't, try to work out an agreement of suspending any late fee penalties if auto matic payments fail to work. Get any and all agreements in writing.

C. Bills

If you pay your bills by cash, check or credit card --pay them at least 3-4 months in advance, for a 2 month period, extending into February of 2000-- or have enough cash available for the same period. Make sure to get hardcopy receipts for your record s.

D. Cash

Nothing beats hard cold cash in an emergency. Expect prices to go up, especially if there are shortages of any goods like food. Put cash aside (in a safe place - not a bank or other location that you may not be able to access at any time) enough to pay for food, fuel, medical care, emergencies, etc., for 2 months.

How much? Monitor your expenditures for a month, all of them, even the incidental. The easiest way to do this is keep every single receipt (making sure you ask for them!) for everything you buy, and have the other members of the family do the same. At the end of a month, tally them. Barring unusual expenses, that will give you a good starting figure.

Expect prices to go up when shortages are involved. Inflation is caused by many things - not the least of which is greed. Make sure you know more than one source to purchase goods, and that they are reliable. However, do expect there to be shortages. E ven with enough money it just may not be available to buy.

If you aren't able to put aside as much cash as you like, look into the barter economy. Barter is common practice in many areas. Read up on barter at your local library and acquire goods or list services you may be able to use as currency.

For more information about bartering, we recommend visiting-

E. Credit Cards

Even if retailers have managed to work out their problems with credit cards using "00" in the expiration date, they still need power, and need to be open and operating and willing to accept them. Expect to need and use cash. Also expect that prices wil l go up and there may be shortages.

F. Debit Cards

Debit cards to have the same liabilities as credit cards. Expect to use cash for most purchases.


III. Food and Other Basic Supplies

A. Food

1. What to do when (Courtesy of FEMA )

If the Electricity Goes Off...

2. What you need

Long-Term Food Supplies (Courtesy of FEMA )

The best approach is to store large amounts of staples along with a variety of canned and dried foods. Bulk quantities of wheat, corn, beans and salt are inexpensive and have nearly unlimited shelf life. If necessary, you could survive for years on small daily amounts of these staples.

Stock the following amounts per person, per month:

* Buy in nitrogen-packed cans
** Rotate every two years

Also include:

3. Ways to Supplement Your Long-Term Stockpile (Courtesy of FEMA )

The above staples offer a limited menu, but you can supplement them with commercially packed air-dried or freeze-dried foods and supermarket goods. Rice, popcorn and varieties of beans are nutritious and long-lasting. The more supplements you include, the more expensive your stockpile will be.

The following is an easy approach to long-term food storage:

  1. Buy a supply of the bulk staples listed above.
  2. Build up your everyday stock of canned goods until you have a two-week to one-month surplus.
  3. Rotate it periodically to maintain a supply of common foods that will not require special preparation, water or cooking.
  4. From a sporting or camping equipment store, buy commercially packaged, freeze-dried or air-dried foods. Although costly, this will be your best form of stored meat, so buy accordingly.

4. Storage

No power means no refrigerators or freezers. The best storage is prepackaged food that won't spoil until opened. Cans, boxed food, beans, pasta, etc., will all survive without refrigeration. Survival rations can usually be bought at an Army Surplus sto re, and camp rations at a camping supply store.

Milk may be purchased in cans, vacuum packed, or in powder form. Powdered eggs can be used in a pinch, though the taste can leave something to be desired. Baby formula is usually canned or powdered. Word of caution --if you do purchase canned perishabl es, be sure they are sized for use. You won't be able to store opened cans of milk, etc., without risking food poisoning. Another benefit of canned foods is that they don't require cooking, water or special preparation.

Coolers are always an option, however you have to find a ready source of ice. No electricity, no ice maker. However, those that live in cold climates have an advantage. If the temperature outside is consistently below 32 degrees, a Styrofoam cooler out doors works well for items like margarine, cheese, etc. Just protect it from animals and curious passerby's.

Store wheat, corn and beans in sealed cans or plastic buckets. Buy powdered milk in nitrogen-packed cans. And leave salt and vitamin C in their original packages.

Storage Tips (Courtesy of FEMA )

5. Purchase

Most of us buy our food at supermarkets. If there is a breakdown in the supply chain, we could experience shortages or store closures. The best alternative is - of course - buying what you need ahead of time. At least 2-3 months prior, start laying in non perishable basics like, toilet paper, tissue, dry and can goods, etc.

The cheapest way to purchase goods is by case-lot. It not always easy to find, but talk to the managers of your favorite store, and see if they'll do so. If the local market closes, you may be able to turn to the local barter market. For more informati on about barter, see Cash.

You might also want to check out -

6. Preservation

For favorite foods such as strawberries, bananas, etc., you might consider purchasing far in advance and dehydrating. Today's dehydrator's are simple to use and very effective. Storage can be as simple as ziplock bags or vacuum seal jars. To extend she lf-life, you can store dehydrated foods in your freezer until needed. Rehydration is simply a matter of adding water, or you can eat them as is, or add to your morning cereal, or in your baking.

You can also use your dehydrator or oven to make jerky. Or, if you're more ambitious, you can try canning. However, make sure you follow directions carefully to avoid any contamination or later spoilage. Your local library should have plenty of books a vailable on both methods.

7. Preparation

You can always treat emergency situations like a camp out. A propane or kerosene stove works just fine for most stove-top cooking. The only problem is enough fuel, and proper ventilation. Fire danger increases as well. Make sure you have one or more mu lti-use fire extinguishers always close at hand --small canister, ABC type. Also, never leave an open flame unattended, especially indoors, and most especially when small children are nearby.

An outdoor charcoal or propane grill can do double duty, as well as your fireplace (as long as it is wood burning). You can also heat food with candle warmers, chafing dishes and fondue pots. Canned food can be eaten right out of the can. If you heat i t in the can, be sure to open the can and remove the label first. Also, canned foods won't require cooking, water or special preparation. You can also heat food with candle warmers, chafing dishes and fondue pots.

Most camping supply stores have quite a wide variety of devices with which you can cook --from solar, to the old sterno cans. Check with them for what may be appropriate for your needs. Also, make any purchases well in advance. Prices may go up, and av ailability may go down as "the day" approaches.

If these staples comprise your entire menu, you must eat all of them together to stay healthy. To avoid serious digestive problems, you'll need to grind the corn and wheat into flour and cook them, as well as boil the beans, before eating. Many health food stores sell hand-cranked grain mills or can tell you where you can get one. Make sure you buy one that can grind corn. If you are caught without a mill, you can grind your grain by filling a large can with whole grain one inch deep, holding the can o n the ground between your feet and pounding the grain with a pipe.

B. Basic Supplies

You might want to store the following in a large covered plastic storage bins until needed.





IV. Health

A. First Aid

Put together a basic first aid kit. You can obtain a basic first aid manual from your local American Red Cross chapter. Include the following:

B. Regular Medical and Dental Care

Try to schedule needed exams, tests, etc., with results returned well before the end of 1999. If your doctor has paid attention to the Y2K problem, he may "misplace" your medical records. Get hard copies of your medical file, x-rays, etc. If you requir e medication regularly, ask if the Doctor will give you a prescription in advance.

Try not to schedule any elective surgery just before or just after the turn of the century. Elective meaning surgery not required for treatment of a life or health threatening or sustaining condition (usually cosmetic, e.g. liposuction, face lifts, etc .).

C. Emergency Medical and Dental Care

The greatest concern in an emergency is reaching someone who can help. If the phone lines are down, you might be able to reach emergency services by CB. However, even if phones work, there's no guarantee that the machines and equipment emergency person nel use will work, and correctly. That leaves it up to you.

Take an advanced first aid class, CPR, etc. Learn especially how to tell the difference between life threatening or non-life threatening condition. When in doubt, however, always err on the side of caution.

Ask your Doctor and Dentist what to do in a variety of situations, such as a knocked-out tooth, fever, broken bones, falls, etc. Make sure you have all the medications needed, extra prescriptions filled, etc. Learning how to deal with such situations y ourself will reduce the likelihood of panic, and increase the chances of survival for the ill or injured person.

If ambulances can't be contacted, you'll need to transport the person yourself, properly and safely. Make sure you know the location of the nearest emergency facilities, and try to contact them before you go. Check with such places before the turn of t he century to see what their contingency plans are in the event ambulance service, emergency personnel, communications, and power failures.

Remember, don't expect the same quality of care you're used to if there is a general emergency in your community. Try to help out, not demand you be treated before others.

D. Medical Devices

If you or anyone you know is dependent on medical devices, It important to contact the manufacturer and get their assurance - in writing - that the device will function correctly and safely. Also, speak to the Physician and express your concerns about the devices. Ask the Physician what alternatives there are to electronic or electrical medical devices, or what you can do if the device fails for any reason. Education is really your only option in this area.

According to FEMA , anyone requiring any type of life support that uses electricity should register with their local Emergency Management office -- regardless of possible circumstances.

Devices that may be affected include:

E. Medical Conditions

The frail elderly, people with particular medical problems that may need a caregiver to perform daily tasks, and people with handicaps, must make special plans for their safety in the event Y2K related emergency service failures occur.

Those who have the following conditions may be especially at risk and should take special precautions:

F. Pharmacies and Medication

Your pharmacy maintains It records on computers, as most businesses. They are subject to the same problems. If you take medication regularly, It a good idea to ask your Doctor to write you an additional prescription ahead of time, to protect you if the pharmacy experiences any problems or delays.

Some problems may be prematurely expired prescriptions, accessing old file information no longer current, changed medication and dosage, etc. They may also "lose" your information, or have trouble processing it with your insurance carrier. Don't forget to bring cash with you when it's time to purchase.

If you are able to receive medication during and immediately after the date change, check your prescription information carefully for - your name, drug name, dosage, quantity, expiration, etc. Errors are still possible, and It a good habit to practice regardless.


V. Power

A. Heat

In cold climates, lack of heat can be life threatening. The ill, the elderly and small children are particularly susceptible. The same is true of very hot climates. If the power goes off, It likely you will not be able to heat your home if you use elec tric, or electric fired gas or oil. If power does not go off, you may still be vulnerable if your home temperature control system shuts down. Honeywell has publicly admitted that some of their home systems may not work. Ask the manufacturer of yours if it will function.

If you depend on air-conditioners, etc., you face the same problems. A cool, darkened basement may be good refuge during the heat of the day. Also, battery powered fans should help keep the air circulating, making you feel more comfortable if not coole r.

Always drink plenty of water to combat dehydration in hot climates, and dress accordingly. Restrict activity to the cooler parts of the day. Cover the inside of windows with aluminum foil to reflect the heat away from the house, or use a blanket or she ets. You can also rig a shelter on the shady side of the house using a large tarp; or rig a tarp to shade the front of the house to keep interior heat down.

If heat is cut off, your fireplace, wood stove, freestanding kerosene heater, or even cans of Sterno may act as an alternate heat source. Since heat circulation without fans is difficult, restrict yourselves to one or two rooms of the house and shut th e doors on the rest. Try not to enter or exit the house from the room of the source of your primary heat. However, do make sure there is adequate ventilation to prevent the build up of carbon monoxide, other gases or smoke. Buy a battery powered carbon mo noxide detector.
Pile up mattresses, sleeping bags, thick blankets and pillows across from the heat source, but not too near it. Expect to wear additional clothes indoors, such as sweaters or sweatshirts, and thick socks --even to bed. If you have children, have them slee p together, between you and your spouse, and/or with the family pet. Dogs, in particular, are great sources of heat (ever hear of a 3 dog night?). Also great alarms if there are any problems in the night.

B. Light

Though not necessary to our physical survival, light is very important to our emotional health and stability. Light sources include candles, hurricane lamps, flashlights, battery powered camping lights, etc. Fireplaces and wood stoves can also make coz y evening light. Don't expect to light a room as you're used to with electric light. It won't hurt your eyes to use subdued lighting, even for an extended period of time.

Make sure any open flame is well away from children, pets, or flammables, and secure from accidental contact. Always keep a fire extinguisher close at hand. For safety, use a flashlight when using the stairs or accessing darkened cabinets or rooms.

If you need light close to children (to change diapers, etc.), battery powered is by far the safest. You might consider giving them their own small flashlights for fun and as a way to make them feel more secure (but have plenty of batteries!).

Whatever light source(s) you use, be sure you have an adequate supply of fuel or batteries. Store them where easily accessible, safe, and away from children and pets.


VI. Safety

Safety is best accomplished through prevention. Do everything you can to prevent accidents, injuries and fires in your home. Check for frayed or loose rugs, unnecessary objects on stairs, halls and walkways, protruding objects on walls that may be miss ed in the dark, to name a few.

A. In the Home

B. Security Systems

Security systems include CCTV, motion and heat detectors, and pressure pads to name a few. These systems all depend on electricity --whether from the grid or backup power systems. Since backups kick in if the power goes out, make sure your backup syste m will function. The only way to know is to ask the manufacturer. Don't assume anything, and get it in writing.

If the security system is for your home or office, be prepared to make a physical inspection of the site to ensure security if power fails. It is also possible to hire temporary security personnel. Security specialists are available for advice, though hiring their services can be expensive. Your local Police department is probably the best source of information if you have questions or special needs. Don't forget, however, that in an emergency, home or office security is not a police priority, so don't expect it.

It is NOT recommended that householders or business people arm themselves, especially if they have minimal or no prior experience with weapons. The risks are potentially greater than the benefits. It takes many hours of professional training to use a w eapon safely and correctly.

If valuables are a concern, remove them from your home or business. Bank vaults are still the safest place to keep them. However, use vaults only if you won't need the items for a week or so. Office equipment is usually covered by insurance if stolen; however, don't expect replacements for at least 4 - 8 weeks, if not longer.

If security is still a concern, consider a watch dog or manual alarm devices. {Teenagers seem to be very clever at rigging their rooms to prevent unwanted parental intrusion.} The best security is probably a well-lit area, the presence of a number of p eople, and the possibility of animal protection (dogs, a tape of a barking dog, "Beware of Dog" signs, very large bones and food bowls left where they can be easily seen).

1. Electronic Locks

If electronic locks rely on electricity, It likely either they won't open --possibly locking a person in or out; or fail in "safe mode" by releasing the lock. If this is the case, security is in question.

Check to see if there is a manual override; if there is, make sure you have the key or information to use it. If not, you may need to force the door if entry or egress is necessary. Prevention is also an option.

If you feel It likely the lock will fail, you can keep the door open or block the locking mechanism from engaging. This may cause an alarm to go off, which will require you to override it before-hand, or be prepared to explain it to security or police.

2. Key Cards or Code Locks

Key cards are likely to suffer the same problems as electronic locks. Locks into which you punch a code, may also fail to operate, depending on whether they are manual or electronic. Refer to Electronic Locks for more detail.


VII. Transportation

A. Auto

Anyone who says software in cars isn't a problem has forgotten the recent General Motors Corp. recall. About 292,860 Pontiacs, Oldsmobiles and Buicks from the 1996 and 1997 model years were recalled due to an engine software problem. GM said a faulty e ngine system sequence can cause a backfire during start-up, possibly resulting in a cracked intake manifold which could erupt in a fire.

Could your car fail to function? Once again, you'll need written assurance from the manufacturer. Even with that, start considering alternate transportation such as bicycles, low-tech motorcycles, low-tech cars, etc. Of course, walking is a healthy alt ernative. If you live in a rural area, horses and carts might be an option.

Another aspect may be unavailability of fuel. Gas stations may experience a variety of electrical or electronic problems, as well as delays in fuel delivery. Storing gas can be extremely hazardous. We don't recommend it.

B. Public Transportation

Buses will probably experience the same problems as cars. Especially busses, trolley's, light rail, etc. Alternate transportation would be the same as above.

C. Airplane

Several airline companies have publicly announced that they may not fly if they are not confident that EVERY aspect of flight control, monitoring, communication, etc., will function and correctly at the turn of the century. Don't plan on taking plane t rips over the century change, or -if you do- leave at least 2 weeks ahead of time, and plan an extended stay. Florida may be nice! As for alternatives--hang gliding will only get you so far.

D. Train

The rail industry is already experiencing severe problems due to computer malfunctions, not related to Y2K. Don't expect trains to be anymore likely to run than other public transportation.

Also, beware of rail crossings. It been reported that some microprocessor-based gate and signaling controls have failed Y2K tests.

E. Traffic Systems

Many traffic systems are microprocessor controlled. If driving, treat every light as if it were a stop sign --even if green. As a pedestrian, distrust crossing lights. Also be wary of Express Lanes that use gates to control the flow of traffic. Persona lly, I'd avoid them completely.


VIII. Water

A. What you need

A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments and intense physical activity can double that amount. Children, nursing mothers and ill people will need more.

Store one gallon of water per person per day (two quarts for drinking, two quarts for food preparation/sanitation).

B. Storage and Treatment (Courtesy of FEMA )

Before storing your water, treat it with a preservative, such as chlorine bleach, to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Use liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite and no soap. Some containers warn,"Not For Personal Use". You ca n disregard these warnings if the label states sodium hypochlorite is the only active ingredient and if you use only the small quantities in these instructions.

Add four drops of bleach per quart of water (or two scant teaspoons per 10 gallons), and stir. Seal your water containers tightly, label them and store them in a cool, dark place. For additional methods of purification, contact your local Red Cross.

Boiling, however, is the safest method of purifying water. Bring water to a rolling boil for 10 minutes, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it b y pouring it back and forth between two containers. This will also improve the taste of stored water.

You can store your water in thoroughly washed plastic, fiberglass or enamel-lined metal containers. Never use a container that has held toxic substances, because tiny amounts may remain in the container's pores. Sound plastic containers, such as soft d rink bottles, are good. You can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums. Avoid using containers that will decompose or break, such as milk cartons or glass bottles.

C. Drinking Water


Two good sources of water is large containers you can purchase at your grocery store, and from your own tap. Since there is some debate of the purity of tap water, make sure you treat it before storing it long-term.

Hidden Water Sources in Your Home (Courtesy of FEMA )

If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use water in your hot-water tank, in your plumbing and in ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl), but purify it fi rst (see Storage and Treatment).

Water beds hold up to 400 gallons, but some water beds contain toxic chemicals that are not fully removed by many purifiers. If you designate a water bed in your home as an emergency resource, drain it yearly and refill it with fresh water containing t wo ounces of bleach per 120 gallons. Or, use the water only for toilet flushing.

To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the highest (elevation) faucet in your house and draining the water from the lowest one.

To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at the bottom of the tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or ele ctricity when the tank is empty.

Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You'll need to shut if off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines. Also, in cold climates frozen pipes may burst if there is no heat. Shut off the water and drain the pipes if there's a strong possibility of this occurring.

D. Waste Water

Wastewater and sewage treatment facilities are highly automated and environmental emissions monitoring and control systems depend on year-2000-vulnerable embedded controls. Malfunctions due to year 2000 problems could lead to polluting releases and emi ssions that could endanger local residents. One mission-critical program where work on year-2000 issues was lagging, according to a recent status report, is the pump-station network --a system that monitors stations to keep track of sewage and waste-water flows.

Be wary of tap water, and "gray" water used for outside purposes. Home water testing kits can help you check. The best defense is a store of emergency water.


IX. Sanitation and Refuse

As for solid waste, expect delays in garbage collection, etc. Rodents can be a major health threat where garbage accumulates; so make sure you have enough sturdy, lidded containers to hold refuse produced over a 2 week period. Be prepared to keep your yard clean if other peoples refuse finds its way to you.
Don't allow garbage to accumulate outside your home. In some rural areas, trash can be a particular attractant for a variety of wildlife--some dangerous. Store paper and other flammables away from any heat sources or open flames until it can be disposed o f. See also sanitation supplies.

As for personal waste, use water straight from the tap to flush the toilet after every use. Don't use your drinking water if you can help it. Filling up the bathtub ahead of time should provide enough water for a week or more. Or, if your shower works, don't let all the water drain afterwards. Bleach can be used to deodorize and disinfect the toilet when added to the water; just don't let your pets use it for drinking!


X. Misc.

A. Preparing Your Home

Winterize your house, barn, shed or any other structure that may provide shelter for your family, neighbors, livestock or equipment. Install storm shutters, doors and windows; clear rain gutters; repair roof leaks; and check the structural ability of t he roof to sustain unusually heavy weight from the accumulation of snow--or water, if drains on flat roofs do not work. Keep plywood, plastic sheeting, lumber, sandbags and hand tools on hand and accessible.

B. Prepare Yourself

If you go outside for any reason, dress for the season and expected conditions: For cold weather, wear several layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer of heavy clothing. Outer garments should be tightly woven and water -repellent. Mittens are warmer than gloves. Wear a hat. Cover your mouth with a scarf to protect your lungs from extremely cold air. Wear sturdy, waterproof boots in snow or flooding conditions.


This publication is designed to provide general information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is distributed with the understanding that neither the author nor publisher is engaged in rendering legal, medical, or other professional services; it is not be utilize as a substitute for professional legal, medical, nor technical advice nor services.

The author permits individuals to copy or distribute this document -in whole or in part- with accompanying credits. It is not to be sold.

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